Cyber-crimes are crimes committed in the virtual world with the help of computers, laptops, mobile phones, tablets or any other electronic devices. It is gaining illegal access or harming other computers or computer networks. Different types of cyber crimes are as follows:-
Hacking is where a person obtains illegal/unauthorized access of other computer systems, computer networks or personal information. It is seen that the hackers mostly target websites of various Government so as to access confidential information, data etc. This also includes Web Hijacking wherein the owner of the website does not have any control or access to his own website. The hacker controls the website and uses the website either for posting disturbing images, pornography, provoking or disrespecting other people’s emotions or disrespecting other countries etc. It is to be noted that as per Section 43(a) and Section 66 of the Information Technology Act, 2008 hacking is a punishable offence. Many must have remembered hacking events of portals of Yahoo!, eBay, Amazon by Michael Demon Calce (Mafia Boy) in the year 2000. Michael used denial of service attack technique and he was behind bars when he was 15. India’s famous telecom company BSNL also felt prey to hacking in the year 2012 by a group of hackers.
2. Cyber Terrorism:
Cyber Terrorism is caused generally when the hacker hacks the website and posts religious, political or on similar objectives threats, hatred or violent messages against the neighboring/rival countries to induce terrorism, harm or fear in the people.
3. Cyber Stalking:
Cyber stalking is staking a person in the virtual world. A person continuously annoys, threatens, harasses or terrorizes people or a group of people on the internet. Majority of the times women are stalked or harassed by men. Ritu Kohli case is famous in this regards. At that time the IT Act was not in force. Hence the complaint was lodged under the Sec 509 of IPC ()
Spamming is sending e-mails or messages to others n number of times, overloading the networks bandwidth.
5. Cyber Pornography:
Women and children are the victims of cyber pornography wherein they are exploited in the virtual world. Adults with wrong intension send photos and/or videos explicitly over the internet on account of sexual attraction. Children are most simple targets of pedophiles for sexual gains. Cyber pornography does include pornographic websites/magazines/broadcasting/publication over the internet or intranet etc.
6. Phishing/ Web Spoofing:
In this the attacker creates a fake website which looks similar or identical to the original website and obtains your username, password or credit card details or bank details. Logging onto such website can be controlled by using more secured way of accessing websites with the secured protocol. It is important to note that the a secured website contains ‘https’ mentioned on the URL for safe streaming. HTTPS does mean trusted website.
7. Password Sniffers:
These are programs which keep a record of the names and the passwords you enter in exposing the details and password protected documents and get hold of private information and details.
8. Software Piracy:
Software piracy is theft of the software wherein the person uses pirated software or counterfeits the software.
9. Denial of Service Attacks (DoS Attack):
This includes bombarding a web server in order to crash thereby unable to perform its services. These are basically targeted to a specific computers, there is another type of Denial of service attack also known as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack in which there are many offenders widely and geographically spread over the countries.
10. Source Code Theft:
Source code is an accumulation of programming instructions for software development companies. The offender is usually an employee of the company.
11. Trojan/virus or worm Attack:
Trojan/virus or a worm is where the person sends a victim a virus via e-mail, messages or as attachments. Viruses terminates electronic information. Viruses can be masked with the attached images, greeting cards, audio or video files. Worms mostly eat all the computer’s memory and space.
12. Credit Card Fraud:
The victim’s credit card details are taken from the databases and used for booking airline tickets, online shopping or other e-commerce transactions.
13. Online Gambling and online sale of illegal articles:
Online gambling is legalized in a lot of countries. In India online gambling is illegal. There is also online illegal sale of drugs, weapons, wildlife etc. There are websites especially for selling the prescription of the drugs.
14. Crimes relating to Electronic Signatures:
A person misrepresenting to obtain an electronic signature certificate or who issues a false electronic signature certificates is punishable crime under Section 71 and 73 of the Information Technology Act, 2008.